Thrombophlebitis Thrombophlebitis

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Updated: Jul 12, Treatment of Septic and Suppurative Thrombophlebitis. Superficial thrombophlebitis is a common inflammatory-thrombotic disorder in which a thrombus develops in a vein located near the surface of the skin. See Etiology and Workup. Although superficial thrombophlebitis usually occurs in the lower extremities, it also has been described in the penis and the breast Mondor Thrombophlebitis. Superficial thrombophlebitis can also develop anywhere that medical interventions occur, such as in the arm Thrombophlebitis neck external jugular vein when intravenous Geschwür Fuß der trophische am Baustufenfotos catheters are used.

See Etiology, Presentation, and Workup. Thrombosis and thrombophlebitis of the superficial venous system receive little attention in medical and surgical textbooks. However, thrombophlebitis is encountered frequently and, although it is usually a benign, self-limiting disease, it can be recurrent and tenaciously persistent, at times causing significant incapacitation.

See Epidemiology and Prognosis. When affecting the great saphenous vein also referred to as the greater or long saphenous veinthrombophlebitis will sometimes progress into the deep venous system. Damage to deep venous valves leads to chronic deep venous insufficiency often referred to as postphlebitic syndromeas well as to recurrent pulmonary embolism PE and an increased risk of death.

Although the etiology is frequently obscure, superficial Thrombophlebitis thrombosis is most often associated with one of the components Thrombophlebitis the Virchow triad; ie, intimal damage which can Thrombophlebitis from trauma, infection, or inflammationstasis or turbulent flow, or changes Thrombophlebitis blood constituents Thrombophlebitis causing increased coagulability.

In each type of superficial Thrombophlebitis, the condition presents as redness and tenderness along the course of the vein, usually accompanied by swelling. Bleeding also can occur at the site of a varicose vein. Although unusual, superficial thrombophlebitis may occur in the lesser saphenous vein, Thrombophlebitis empties into Thrombophlebitis popliteal vein.

Thrombophlebitis thrombophlebitis can also occur in the external jugular vein, if it has been used for an infusion site. Superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremities usually occurs at infusion sites or sites of trauma. Superficial thrombophlebitis is a clinical diagnosis in which Thrombophlebitis clinician identifies tender and inflamed superficial veins. However, ruling out DVT in the clinical setting is difficult; further testing is often required to evaluate for this condition.

See Presentation and Workup. Treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis Thrombophlebitis aimed at patient comfort and at preventing superficial phlebitis from involving the deep veins. See Treatment and Medication. Superficial phlebitis with infection, such as phlebitis originating at an IV catheter site, is referred to as click thrombophlebitisa clinical Thrombophlebitis requiring diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that are different from those applied to sterile phlebitis.

Microscopic thrombosis Thrombophlebitis a normal part of the dynamic balance of hemostasis. Inthe German pathologist Virchow recognized that if this dynamic balance were altered by venous stasis or turbulence, abnormal coagulability, or vessel wall injuries, then microthrombi could propagate to form macroscopic thrombi.

In the absence of a triggering event, neither venous stasis nor abnormal coagulability alone causes clinically important Thrombophlebitis, but vascular endothelial injury does reliably result in thrombus formation. The initiating injury triggers an inflammatory response that results in Thrombophlebitis platelet Thrombophlebitis at the injury site.

Further platelet aggregation is mediated by thromboxane A2 TxA2 and by thrombin. A more detailed visual of the coagulation pathway can be seen in the image below. Platelet aggregation due to TxA2 Thrombophlebitis inhibited irreversibly by aspirin and reversibly by other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory Thrombophlebitis NSAIDs ; thrombin-mediated platelet aggregation, on the other hand, is not affected by NSAIDs, including aspirin.

This is why aspirin and other NSAIDs Thrombophlebitis somewhat effective in preventing arterial thrombosis, where platelet aggregation is mediated via TxA2, as seen in patients with stroke and myocardial infarction, but are not very effective in Thrombophlebitis venous thrombophlebitis, where it is Thrombophlebitis that clot formation is more of a result of thrombin activation. The most important clinically identifiable risk factors for thrombophlebitis are a prior history of superficial Thrombophlebitis, DVT, and PE.

Some common risk markers Thrombophlebitis recent surgery or pregnancy, prolonged immobilization, and underlying malignancy. Phlebitis also occurs in diseases associated with vasculitis, such as polyarteritis Thrombophlebitis periarteritis nodosa and Buerger disease thromboangiitis obliterans.

This is partly due Thrombophlebitis increased platelet stickiness and partly due to reduced Thrombophlebitis activity. The association between pregnancy and thrombophlebitis is of particular concern to women who habe Varizen und Honig better the factor V Leiden or prothrombin Ca gene, because they already have a predisposition to clotting, which would also be exacerbated by pregnancy.

Case-controlled and cohort studies based on Thrombophlebitis signs and symptoms of Thrombophlebitis suggest that by taking high-estrogen oral contraceptives, a Thrombophlebitis may increase her risk of thrombosis by a factor of times, though the absolute risk remains low. Newer low-dose oral contraceptives are associated with a much lower risk Thrombophlebitis thrombophlebitis, though the absolute risk has not been well quantified. Ecchymosis may be present early in the disease, indicating extravasation of blood associated with injury to the vein; this may turn to brownish pigmentation over the vein as the inflammation resolves.

Thrombophlebitis frequently Thrombophlebitis at the site of an IV infusion and is the result of irritating drugs, hypertonic solutions, or the intraluminal catheter or cannula itself. This is by far the most common type of thrombophlebitis encountered. Usually, redness and pain signal its presence while the infusion is being given, but thrombosis may manifest as a small lump days or weeks after the infusion apparatus has been removed. It may take months to completely resolve.

The features of iatrogenic form of traumatic chemical phlebitis may be deliberately produced by sclerotherapy during the treatment of varicose veins. Superficial thrombophlebitis frequently occurs in varicose veins. It may extend up and down the saphenous vein or may remain confined to a cluster of tributary varicosities away from the Thrombophlebitis saphenous vein.

Although Thrombophlebitis may follow trauma to a varix, it often occurs in varicose veins without an antecedent cause. Thrombophlebitis in a varicose vein develops as a tender, hard knot and is frequently Thrombophlebitis by erythema.

At times, bleeding may occur as the reaction extends through the vein wall. It frequently is observed in varicose veins surrounding venous stasis ulcers. Superficial thrombophlebitis along the course of the great saphenous vein is observed more often to progress to the deep system. Thrombophlebitis thrombophlebitis is associated Thrombophlebitis several different conditions, including a serious complication of intravascular cannulation and can be suspected in patients who have persistent bacteremia in the setting of appropriate antibiotic therapy.

It also frequently is associated with septicemia. ThrombophlebitisThrombophlebitis suggested that dormant infection in varicose veins was a factor in the development of thrombophlebitis occurring following operations or after injection treatments, trauma, or exposure to radiation therapy.

Although numerous etiologic factors have Thrombophlebitis proposed for this condition, none have been confirmed. The association of carcinoma with migratory thrombophlebitis Thrombophlebitis first reported by Trousseau, in Sproul noted migratory thrombophlebitis to be especially prevalent with carcinoma of the tail of the pancreas.

Thrombophlebitis is usually Thrombophlebitis in the anterolateral aspect of the upper portion of the breast or Thrombophlebitis the Thrombophlebitis extending from the lower portion of the breast across the submammary fold toward the costal margin and Thrombophlebitis epigastrium.

A Thrombophlebitis finding is a tender, cordlike structure that may be best demonstrated by tensing the skin via elevation Thrombophlebitis the arm. The cause Thrombophlebitis Mondor disease is unknown, but a Thrombophlebitis for malignancy is indicated. Mondor disease is more likely to occur after breast surgery, with the use of oral contraceptives, and with Thrombophlebitis C deficiency. Thrombophlebitis of Thrombophlebitis dorsal Thrombophlebitis of the penis, generally caused by trauma or repetitive injury, is also referred to as Mondor disease.

However, Markovic et al reported that a common risk factor is age older than 60 years, Thrombophlebitis fewer complications occur in this age Thrombophlebitis. However, there are Thrombophlebitis intrinsic, sex-linked risks for the disease. The prognosis in superficial thrombophlebitis is usually Thrombophlebitis. Superficial phlebitis is rarely associated with PE, although it can occur, particularly if the process Thrombophlebitis into a deep vein.

However, individuals with superficial venous thrombosis do not seem Thrombophlebitis have a great tendency to develop DVT. In contrast, patients with DVT are frequently found to have superficial venous thrombosis. The Thrombophlebitis should be told to expect the disease process to persist for weeks or longer. If it occurs in the lower extremity in association with varicose veins, it has a high likelihood of recurrence unless excision is performed.

Because thrombophlebitis tends to recur if the vein has not been excised, instructing the patient in ways to prevent stasis in the vein is usually advisable. The use of elastic stockings may be indicated, especially if the patient plans to stand in an upright position for long periods. Slight elevation of the foot of the bed, Thrombophlebitis of long periods of standing in Thrombophlebitis upright position, and avoidance of prolonged inactivity is recommended.

Thrombophlebitis patient education information, see Varicose VeinsDeep Vein Thrombosis Blood Clot in the Leg, DVTand Phlebitis. Verlato Thrombophlebitis, Zucchetta P, Prandoni P, Camporese G, Marzola MC, Salmistraro G, et al.

An unexpectedly high rate of Thrombophlebitis embolism in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis of the thigh. The Krampfadern Chestnut von Rezept in thromboangiitis obliterans: With particular reference to arteriovenous anastomosis Krampfadern Trauben und a cure for the condition.

Nagoya, Japan: University of Nagoya Press; Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. Pearson T, Thrombophlebitis M, Cohen J, Driscoll M. Vasculopathy related to cocaine adulterated with levamisole: A review of the literature. Thrombophlebitis MD, Ramsay JE, Tait RC, et al. Superficial vein thrombosis: incidence Thrombophlebitis association with Thrombophlebitis and prevalence of thrombophilic defects.

Rosendaal FR, Thrombophlebitis FM, Vandenbroucke Thrombophlebitis. Oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and thrombosis. Rush MD, Schoenfeld CN, Watson WA, et al. Skin necrosis and venous thrombosis from subcutaneous injection of charcoal lighter fluid naptha. Thrombophlebitis J Emerg Med. Mermel LA, Allon M, Bouza E, Thrombophlebitis al. Thrombophlebitis practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of intravascular catheter-related infection: Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

Am J Med Sci. Altemeier WA, Hill EO, Fullen WD. Acute and recurrent thromboembolic disease: a new concept of etiology. Carcinoma and venous thrombosis: Frequency of association of carcinoma in body or tail of pancreas with multiple venous thrombosis. Nazir SS, Khan Bird V, Krasnokutsky S, Zhou HS, et al.

Traumatic thrombophlebitis of the superficial dorsal vein of the penis: an occupational hazard. Markovic MD, Lotina SI, Davidovic LB, et al. Thrombophlebitis Arh Celok Lek. Wichers Thrombophlebitis, Di Nisio M, Buller HR, et al. Treatment of superficial vein thrombosis to prevent deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a systematic review.

Schonauer V, Kyrle PA, Weltermann A, et al. Superficial thrombophlebitis and risk for recurrent venous thromboembolism. Protein s deficiency in repetitive superficial Thrombophlebitis. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. Gillet JL, Ffrench P, Hanss M, Allaert FA, Chleir F. Lutter KS, Kerr TM, Roedersheimer LR, et al.

Superficial thrombophlebitis diagnosed by duplex scanning. Bergqvist D, Jaroszewski H. Deep vein thrombosis in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis of the leg. Br Med J Clin Res Ed. Superficial venous thrombosis and compression ultrasound imaging. Review: Fondaparinux reduces VTE and recurrence in superficial thrombophlebitis of the leg. Prandoni P, Tormene D, Pesavento R. Di Nisio Thrombophlebitis, Wichers IM, Middeldorp S. Thrombophlebitis for superficial thrombophlebitis of Thrombophlebitis leg.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Decousus H, Prandoni P, Mismetti P, et al. Fondaparinux for the treatment of superficial-vein thrombosis in the legs. Go here Engl Thrombophlebitis Med.

Bijsterveld NR, Moons AH, Boekholdt SM, et al. Ability of recombinant factor Thrombophlebitis to reverse the anticoagulant effect of the pentasaccharide fondaparinux in healthy volunteers. Ascher E, Hanson JN, Salles-Cunha S, et al. Lesser saphenous vein thrombophlebitis: its natural history and Thrombophlebitis for management.

Lozano FS, Almazan A. Low molecular weight heparin versus saphenofemoral disconnection for the treatment of above knee greater saphenous thrombophlebitis: a prospective study.

Factors predictive Varizen von dem, was erscheint venous thrombotic complications in patients with isolated superficial vein thrombosis.

Rathbun SW, Aston CE, Whitsett TL. A randomized trial of dalteparin compared with ibuprofen for the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis. Principles of Peripheral Vascular Surgery. Philadelphia, Pa: FA Davis; Thrombophlebitis heparin spray: a new formula in Thrombophlebitis treatment of superficial venous thrombosis.

Johnson G, DePalma RG. Superficial thrombophlebitis: diagnosis and management. Laser-Behandlung von venösen Beingeschwüren, Pa: WB Saunders; Vol 1:section XIX. Kim J, Richards Varizen Clinic Novosibirsk, Kent PJ. Clinical examination Thrombophlebitis varicose veins--a validation study.

Ann R Coll Surg Engl. Marchiori A, Verlato F, Sabbion P, et al. High versus low doses of unfractionated heparin for the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis of the leg. A prospective, controlled, randomized study.

Murray CK, Beckius ML, McAllister K. Fusarium proliferatum superficial suppurative thrombophlebitis. Neher JO, Safranek S, Greenwald JL. What is the best therapy for superficial thrombophlebitis?. Superficial Thrombophlebitis Treated by Enoxaparin Study Group.

A pilot randomized double-blind comparison of a low-molecular-weight heparin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, and placebo in the treatment of Thrombophlebitis vein thrombosis. Wester JP, Kuenen BC, Meuwissen OJ, et al. David FM Brown, MD Associate Professor, Division of Emergency Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Vice Thrombophlebitis, Department of Thrombophlebitis Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital David FM Brown, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College Thrombophlebitis Emergency Physicians and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Ryan Doss, Thrombophlebitis Resident Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Detroit Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine Ryan Doss, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Thrombophlebitis College Thrombophlebitis Emergency PhysiciansAmerican Medical AssociationEmergency Medicine Residents AssociationMichigan College of Emergency Physiciansand Michigan State Medical Society Craig F Feied, MD, FACEP, FAAEM, FACPh, Professor of Emergency Medicine, Thrombophlebitis University School of Medicine; General Manager, Microsoft Enterprise Health Solutions Group Craig F Feied, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Thrombophlebitis Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, American College Thrombophlebitis Phlebology, American College of Physicians, American Medical Association, American Medical Informatics Association, American Venous Forum, Medical Society of the District of Columbia, Society for Academic Emergency Thrombophlebitis, and Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society Jonathan A Handler, Kompressionskleidungsstück mit Krampfadern in der Pharmazie, HSG Chief Deployment Architect, Microsoft Corporation, Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medine Jonathan A Handler, MD is a member Thrombophlebitis the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, Thrombophlebitis College of Emergency Physicians, American Medical Informatics Association, Phi Beta Kappa, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Jeffrey Lawrence Kaufman, MD Associate Professor, Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, Tufts University School of Medicine Jeffrey Thrombophlebitis Kaufman, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega AlphaAmerican College of SurgeonsAmerican Thrombophlebitis for Artificial Thrombophlebitis OrgansAssociation for Academic ThrombophlebitisAssociation for Surgical EducationMassachusetts Medical Society Thrombophlebitis, Phi Beta Kappaand Society for Vascular Surgery Samuel M Keim, MD Associate Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine Samuel M Keim, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency MedicineThrombophlebitis College of Emergency PhysiciansAmerican Medical AssociationAmerican Public Health Associationand Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Robert G Klever Jr, MD Resident Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Detroit Receiving Hospital, Wayne State University School of Medicine Robert G Klever Jr, MD Thrombophlebitis a Thrombophlebitis of the following medical societies: Thrombophlebitis College of Emergency PhysiciansEmergency Medicine Residents Associationand Society for Thrombophlebitis Emergency Medicine Eddy S Lang, MDCM, CCFP EMCSPQ Associate Professor, Senior Researcher, Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Family Medicine, University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine; Assistant Professor, Department of Family Medicine, McGill University Faculty of Medicine, Canada Eddy S Lang, MDCM, CCFP EMCSPQ is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency PhysiciansCanadian Association of Emergency Physiciansand Society for Academic Emergency Medicine William A Marston, MDAssociate Professor, Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, University of North Carolina School of Medicine William A.

Marston, MD is a member Thrombophlebitis the following medical societies: American College of Surgeons, American Venous Forum, North Thrombophlebitis Medical Society, Peripheral Thrombophlebitis Surgery Society, and Southern Association for Vascular Surgery Nelson S Menezes, MD, Thrombophlebitis EdinFACS Assistant Professor of Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College; Chief of Vascular Thrombophlebitis, Department of Surgery, Brooklyn Hospital Center Nelson S Thrombophlebitis, MD, Click to see more EdinFACS is Thrombophlebitis member of the following medical societies: American College of ThrombophlebitisInternational Society of Endovascular SpecialistsMedical Society of the State Koloskopie Behandlung von Krampfadern mit Knoblauchbutter Rezepte hatte New YorkThrombophlebitis Society Thrombophlebitis Vascular Thrombophlebitis Travis J Phifer, MD Chief, Division of Vascular Surgery, Professor, Department of Surgery and Radiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Thrombophlebitis Travis J Phifer, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency PhysiciansAmerican College of SurgeonsAmerican Medical AssociationAssociation for Academic SurgerySociety for Academic Emergency MedicineSociety for Vascular SurgeryThrombophlebitis Society of Critical Care Medicine Francisco Thrombophlebitis, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference.

Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you Thrombophlebitis. Blood coagulation thrombin and protein C Thrombophlebitis. Age older than 60 years however, there are fewer complications Thrombophlebitis this Thrombophlebitis group.

Hypercoagulable states eg, factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation, and protein S deficiency. Caustic materials, such as lighter fluid, injected intravenously. Superficial thrombophlebitis is a common condition worldwide.

Thrombosis of great saphenous vein and tributaries. Note lack of full Antibiotikum trophischen Geschwüren der Entzündung of vein secondary to intraluminal thrombus. What would you like to print? Thrombophlebitis the entire contents of. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties. This Thrombophlebitis uses cookies to deliver its services as described in our Cookie Policy.

By using this website, you agree to the use of cookies. What to Read Next on Medscape. Thrombophlebitis Conditions and Diseases. Anticoagulation in Deep Vein Thrombosis. Bedside Ultrasonography in Deep Vein Thrombosis. Deep Venous Thrombosis Prophylaxis in Orthopedic Surgery. Deep Venous Thrombosis Risk Stratification. Heparin Use in Deep Venous Thrombosis. Emerging Anticoagulant Agents in Deep Venous Thrombosis.

Successful Use of Rivaroxaban in Postoperative Deep Vein Thrombosis of the Lower Limb Following Instability With Warfarin. Outcomes Worse Thrombophlebitis Upper-Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis. SURVET: Evaluating Sulodexide for Deep Vein Thrombosis. Superficial Venous Insufficiency: Varicose Veins and Venous Ulcers. According to Cardiologists View More. Need a Curbside Consult?

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Lecture 14. Thrombophlebitis

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